Consider the following scores


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Question 1 of 9

Consider the following scores

X Y

10 85

22 73

56 42

35 61

23 77

50 41

74 20

How are these variables related:

A. positive correlation

B. negative correlation

C. curvilinear realtionship

D. no relationship

Question 2 of 9

When considering a correlation coefficient, the number value tells you the _______ of the relationship.

A. direction

B. strength

Question 3 of 9

When considering a correlation coefficient, the 'positive' or 'negative' tells you the ______ of the relationship

A. direction

B. strength

Question 4 of 9

Excess Television Watching as a Toddler Increases the Risk of ADHD as a Child.

A recent study gives yet one more reason to pull the plug on the electronic babysitter. According to a study by Children’s Hospital in Seattle, excess television watching as a toddler increases the risk of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as a child.

The study showed that for each hour of television watching daily by toddlers is linked to a 10 percent higher risk at age 7 of ADHD behavior. This is the first longitudinal study using a large national sample to demonstrate the association between excessive television viewing and ADHD.

This study showed that the more television the child spent watching as a toddler, the more likely the child was to display ADHD symptoms later.

Researchers assessed the toddler’s exposure to television at the age of 1 and then 3. Mothers of these toddlers were asked the number of hours of television their child watched on a typical weekday and a typical weekend day. At the age of 7 mothers rated their child's ADHD symptoms using a standardized behavior rating scale. Researchers compared the parent ratings to information about the child's exposure to television that had been collected during prior portions of the survey. In this way researchers could look at whether children who had watched more television as a toddler had higher ADHD symptom ratings as a child.

The amount of television that children watched as 1 and 3-year-olds was quite high: an average of 2.2 hours/day at age 1 and 3.6 hours/day at age 3. About 15 percent of toddlers were reported to watch more than 5 hours per day at age 1 and more than 6.5 hours/day at age 3. Some mothers reported that their child watched more than 16 hours/day.

The toddler whose television watching was in the top 15% of the sample at age 1 were 28 percent more likely to display Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms at age 7.

The same pattern was found for television viewing at age 3, providing consistent evidence for a link between high levels of television watching as a toddler and high levels of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms as a child.

a. What are you being asked to believe?

b. What evidence is presented to support this position?

c. What is one alternative explanation for these findings?

d. Given your alternative explanation, what additional information would you need in order to rule out that explanation?

A: Excess television watching as a toddler increases the risk of having ADHD as a child.

B: Mothers rate their child’s symptoms and amount of tv and that there is a positive correlation between the two.

C: Parents who rate their children tend to overestimate how much TV or how much ADHD symptoms the child has. Kids who have ADHD tend to watch more TV or that their parents let them watch more TV because their ADHD symptoms make it harder to supervise them.

D: Administer a questionnaire to the parents of the children and not only ask about TV watching habits and ADHD symptoms, but also ask them to explain why they let their kids watch TV and rate certain situations on a scale, then we can compare the different children and their habits and see if the ones whose parents let them watch more TV for certain reasons have more ADHD symptoms. That would allow us to conclude that the cause could be reversed.

Question 5 of 9

RESEARCH PROPOSAL

You might theorize that social skills are influenced by time spent playing video games. You generate the hypothesis that people who spend more time playing video games will have worse social skills than those people who spend less time playing video games.

Describe a survey approach to test this hypothesis. Do not manipulate the predictor variable. Be creative - think about ways that you could use self-report to gather information about how much time someone spends playing video games and how effective their social skills are. You might not be able to get valid information about their behaviors, but perhaps something in their ideas, attitudes, opinions, beliefs or intentions could inform the hypothesis. Be sure to operationally define both your Predictor Variable and your Outcome Variable. Give enough detail to convey your research method. Be sure that you are specifying the comparison that could be made to test this hypothesis.

You may assume that you have unlimited resources (time, money, research assistants) but must follow laws of nature and may not invent random machines (no time travel, no jabbing thermometers into people's foreheads to measure their inner experiences).

Evaluate your proposal. Is survey an appropriate way to measure your variables? What are the strengths and weaknesses of using survey to test this hypothesis? If you violate ethical issues, please indicate that you are aware that you are doing so.

A. Operational definition of predictor variable

B. Operational definition of outcome variable

C. Research procedure

D. Evaluate your proposal.

A: Playing video games can be operationally defined as playing more than 5 hours of video games a week.

B Social skills can be operationally defined as the set of skills people use to interact and communicate with one another

C: Participants were invited to a lab through an extra credit program. Participants were informed that they would be taking brief surveys. They were first given a survey on social skills and then after completion of the first were given a survey on video games.

D: Surveys are useful for large populations and collecting large amounts of data in a feasible manner. They are generally easy to take and don’t require a large amount of time. They can give a pretty clear measurement of data, but surveys also are not always sound.

Part 3 of 4 - sampling

Question 6 of 9

You are a researcher interested in cheating on the UC Irvine campus. What is your population?

A. All University of California students

B. All UC Irvine students

C. UC Irvine students who cheat

D. All college students Reset Selection

Question 7 of 9

You are interested in looking at the relationship between class size and cheating. You suspect that there is less cheating in very small classes than in medium sized classes or in large classes. You first try to conduct a simple random sample. You chose 500 UC Irvine students from the registrar's enrollment list. But as there are so many more students in large classes than in small ones, almost all of your sample were in large courses. You decide to employ a stratified random sampling technique, instead. Please describe the steps you would take to select your sample.

I would divide the population into smaller groups (small, large) classes

Question 8 of 9

To address a research question, you want to take a Simple Random Sample – describe the steps you would need to take to select your sample.

Question 9 of 9

Identify the best label for the predictor/independent variable:

Claim: Children with autism spectrum disorder are more anxious than children without autism spectrum disorder.

A. children with autism

B. diagnosis

C. anxiety

D. children

E. age

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