Abstract: This paper presents the structural template and formatting instructions for authors preparing to submit a technical Full Paper for the Lean & Computing in Construction Congress lc


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NameAbstract: This paper presents the structural template and formatting instructions for authors preparing to submit a technical Full Paper for the Lean & Computing in Construction Congress lc
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Bosché F., Brilakis I., and Sacks R. (2017). “Structural template and formatting instructions for your LC3 full paper.” In: Proc. Lean & Computing in Construction Congress (LC3), Vol. 1 (CIB W78), Heraklion, Greece, pp. xx–xx. DOI: xxxx/xxx/xx. [example of style ‘x-citation’]

MS Word Structural Template and Formatting Instructions for Your LC3 Full Paper [style ‘Title’]

Frédéric Bosché1, Ioannis Brilakis2, and Rafael Sacks3 [example of style ‘Authors’]

Abstract: This paper presents the structural template and formatting instructions for authors preparing to submit a technical Full Paper for the Lean & Computing in Construction Congress (LC3) that will see the co-location of the 34th CIB W78 Information Technology for Construction Conference (W78 2017), the 17th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality (CONVR 2017), and the 24th Annual Conference of the International Group for Lean Construction (IGLC-24). Using the template and following these instructions is important to those interested in seeing conference proceedings that are easy to read and have a consistent appearance. To ensure that your paper will conform to the required formatting, save this file with your paper’s title, and then write your text directly into it, erasing the contents as you go. [example of style ‘Abstract First’ for the first paragraph]

Structuring papers according to this template will help authors report clearly on their work. Correct formatting (e.g., using and maintaining the styles without defining your own styles) will let the conference organizers import papers as needed to produce the conference proceedings as well as prepare papers for online posting on the proceedings’ websites of the different partner organisations (CIB W78, CONVR, and IGLC). [example of ‘Abstract Running’ for each subsequent paragraph]

Keywords: Lean construction, computing, mixed reality, template, instructions.

1.Introduction [example of style ‘Heading 1’]


The default language for the proceedings is English; both UK English and American English are acceptable, but please select one and use it consistently in your paper.

The instructions presented here have been adopted to format this paper. After you have formatted your paper accordingly and applied the Microsoft Word ‘styles’ defined herein, your submission should have the same look as this paper. Please observe that some of the styles mentioned here may have different names in your version of Word.

2.Structural Template

2.1Document Structure [example of style ‘heading 2’]


Papers should be at most 8 pages long, including the title page, using A4 paper of 21 mm x 297 mm, with 30mm margins on all sides. Provide on the first page the paper’s title (at most 90 characters, including white spaces), author(s) name(s), abstract (up to 200 words), and keywords. Please spell ‘Abstract:’ and ‘Keywords:’ in bold in front of the abstract and keywords. Provide up to 5 keywords for your paper. Use footnotes to provide each author’s professional title, affiliation, and e-mail address.

Most papers will start with an introduction and end with conclusions. The introduction should start immediately following the keywords (on the first page if possible). The conclusions must be followed by acknowledgments, if any, and then references.

2.2References


A significant body of literature exists to describe construction IT, and lean production/construction theory. It is most appropriate to build on that work (or critique it) and to cite sources accordingly in the References section of your paper.

The references should be formatted according to the Harvard (author date) style to improve readability. Within the body text, single authors are cited as (Alice 2013), two authors as (Alice and Bob 2014) and more than two as (Alice et al 2015). Other examples are illustrated in the following text: "the proceedings of the first three IGLC conferences were compiled into a book, edited by Alarcon (1997). Valuable knowledge can also be found in doctoral dissertations (e.g., Martinez 1996), technical reports (e.g., Tommelein and Ballard 1997) and, of course, journal papers (e.g., Howell et al. 1993; Tommelein 1998; Tommelein et al. 1999)". Multiple references by the same combinations of authors can be suffixed by a Latin lower case characters such as (Alice 2013b).

The bibliographic style to be employed for the different types of publications is illustrated in the References section of this template. More detailed information on the requirements of the Harvard style can be found at http://www.citethisforme.com/harvard-referencing. Journal abbreviation may be used as long as they are eligible, if not official. The provision of DOI references or similar resolvable online resources in the form of hypertext links is strongly encouraged as a convenience to readers and reviewers. All cited online resources should state the date of their last visitation. The citation of dynamic content such as Wikipedia is strongly discouraged.

2.3Different Types of Papers


Some authors will write papers on situations, observations, and findings that are practice-based or experimental in nature. Often such papers offer a description or explanation. Sometimes papers are based on hypothesis testing. We ask that authors of such papers clearly describe:

What hypotheses are tested in the work? [example of style ‘List Bullet’]

What evidence is provided that was used to test the hypotheses?

Whether or not the work enabled you to draw conclusions about the hypotheses, or further work is needed?

In contrast, other authors will write papers that are more opinion-based or theoretical in nature. We ask that authors of such papers clearly describe: [example of ‘Text First’ that follows ‘List Bullet’]

What are the foundational elements of the theory you are basing your work on?

What are your hypotheses and background assumptions?

What seems to be true based on the theory?

How could the theory be tested through experimentation?

Moreover, some papers will report on constructive research (also called design science research). Characteristically, this kind of research pertains to creating and testing an artefact. We ask that authors of such papers clearly describe:

What practical problem is being addressed?

What is the design and construction process of the artefact?

How is the artefact evaluated?

All authors should:

Describe the contribution of their work for practitioners as well as scholars.

State the limitations of the presented work.

Propose questions or hypotheses for future work, to be done by themselves or others, and suggest how these may be tested.

The aim of our LC3 congress is to advance both the body of knowledge and the practice in the different areas in covers, so please be responsive to our requests.

3.Formatting Requirements

3.1Purpose and Use


Technical papers should not only present interesting technical material and be well written, but also be formatted properly. Formatting of technical papers is important to those interested in seeing conference proceedings that have a consistent appearance, which in turn makes it easier for readers to at least skim through all texts. We next present the formatting instructions for authors wishing to submit a paper for the next Conference.

3.2Word Processor

3.2.1Document File Type [Example of Style ‘Heading 3’]


Please prepare and submit the final version of your paper as a Microsoft Word (Word, in short) document in .docx file extension (not .doc extension).

The editors of the conference proceedings reserve the right to make minor editorial changes to papers, following these specifications, so as to make them better suited for printing. It is therefore important that you submit a Word document, and not a file in .pdf or other file format. The editors will post-process your paper to produce a .pdf file for online posting.

3.2.2Page Setup


The page setup of this template shall be used. This includes:

Page size

Page rotation

Page margins

Header and footer texts

Changes to any of the above are causes for paper rejection (except for the header on the front page).

3.3Styles


‘Styles’ have been defined and are used in this document. Please apply them to format all your text as well. Use only the styles in this template. Do not manually set the font, font size, or other characteristics of any text. Do not alter any style definitions. In fact, the document is voluntarily restricted so that you can only use the styles in the list of Styles available in the Home tab. If you encounter a situation that can truly not be addressed using the current list of styles, please contact the first author (Frédéric Bosché).

If you are not familiar with styles in Word please take one of the tutorials available online (e.g., Microsoft n.d.) or seek assistance from your organization’s IT support. Learning to use styles and other Word features now will save you a lot of time in future.

3.3.1Styles – Headings


The Heading styles are:

‘Title’ is used only for the paper title

‘Heading 1’

‘Heading 2’

‘Heading 3’

Please avoid using further subheadings and note, contrary to the text paragraphs that are ‘Justified,’ heading styles are ‘Aligned Text Left’ in order to prevent exaggerated spacing when a heading runs to more than one line.

3.3.2Styles – Figures and Tables


The style specifications for figures and tables is as follows:

Figures. Your figure should be ‘In line with text’ (seek information online if you do not understand this). Then, the line (paragraph) containing the figure should be formatted using the style ‘Figure’.

A figure caption is placed below the figure. The style to use is ‘Figure caption.’

Text in tables should be formatted using the styles ‘Table body’ and ‘Table heading.’

A table caption is placed above the table. The style to use is ‘Table caption.’

If possible, keep tables to one page. Do not allow rows to break across pages.

3.3.3Styles – Body


The Body style specifications are:

‘Authors’ is used (only) for formatting the authors’ names under the title

Body text paragraphs following headings, figures, tables, bullet lists or quotes shall be formatted with the style ‘Text First.’

Subsequent paragraphs following directly after a text paragraph shall be formatted with the style ‘Text Running.’

Numbered or bulleted lists should be formatted with ‘List Bullet’ and 'List Numbered'. Again, the paragraph following a list is in ‘Text First’ format.

Footnotes to detail the authors’ affiliations on page 1 shall be formatted with the style ‘Footnote Text.’

References at the end of the paper shall be formatted with the style ‘References.’

The Abstract and Keywords must be formatted using the ‘Abstract First’ for the first paragraph, and ‘Abstract Running’ for the subsequent ones. The first paragraph of the abstract should start with “Abstract:” in bold (i.e. using style ‘Strong’); The list of keywords should start with “Keywords:” also in bold.

The following is an example of numbered list:

4.Item 1 [example of style ‘List Numbered’]

5.Item 2

6.Item 3

6.1.1Making Words or Phrases Stand Out


If you wish to make a word or phrase stand out in a paragraph, then use either the style Strong (bold) [example of the character style ‘Strong’] or the style Emphasis (italic) [example of the character style ‘Emphasis’]. To use these character styles, select the text you wish to make stand out, and then choose and apply the style from the list of Styles. In the references, for example, use the style Emphasis for the titles of books and journals.

We also give you the possibility to underline text [example of the character style ‘Underline’]. Please, try to use it only if the styles ‘Strong’ and ‘Emphasis’ cannot be used.

6.2Figures and Tables


Each figure or table should not precede the paragraph in which it is first mentioned; it should also come as soon as possible after that paragraph. Make sure that each caption for a figure or table fits on the same page as the figure or table it refers to. Figures and tables in the paper may be in color but, if at all possible, try to make them readable in black-and-white. The editors will make each paper into a .pdf file in color for on-line posting, but they printing of the proceedings may be in black-and-white only.

Tables should have a thick top and bottom border, a thin border under headers and generally no vertical borders. Table 1 illustrates these points.

Table 1: This is the caption of the table below. [style ‘Table caption’]

Type of Die

Numbers on Faces [style ‘Table heading]

A

5, 5, 5, 5, 5, 5 [style ‘table body’]

B

4, 4, 4, 6, 6, 6

C

3, 3, 3, 7, 7, 7

D

2, 2, 2, 8, 8, 8

E

1, 1, 1, 9, 9, 9


Important characteristics of figures are their image type (type of file), quality (resolution), and final printed size.

Acceptable image file formats are: Joint Photographic Experts Group (using file extension .jpg or .jpeg), Portable Network Graphics (.png), Encapsulated Postscript (.eps), and the proprietary Windows Enhanced Metafile (.emf).

Raster images, like pictures, can be submitted in any of the formats above. They should have a printable resolution upwards of 300dpi and may be colored, gray-scale or black and white. Printing at 300 dpi requires images of at least 1,800 pixels wide if they are full-page width or 900 pixels wide if half-page width.

Illustrations, like diagrams, are preferably provided and inserted as vector graphics in the Enhanced Metafile (.emf) format. Drawings constructed as lines, boxes, text, etc. within Word cannot be reproduced effectively. So, please do not make drawings using Word.

To achieve the requirements set above, we recommend the use of tools such as Gimp, Inkscape, Visio, Illustrator (and even MS Powerpoint) that can export diagrams directly in Enhanced Metafile (.emf) format format. If you have images in vector graphics format like Encapsulated Postscript (.eps) format, we recommend converting them to Windows Enhanced MetaFile (.emf) before inserting them in your document, for example using the website https://cloudconvert.com/eps-to-emf.

In Word, when you insert a figure in the text, please do not lay it out with wrapping ‘Behind text’ or “In front of text’ (consult Microsoft (n.d) to learn about wrapping styles). Instead, make sure the figure’s wrapping style is ‘In line with text’ and then apply to the figure the paragraph style ‘Figure.’
[style ‘Figure’]

Figure : Illustrations supporting the text should be inserted as vector graphics. Where this is not possible, high resolutions suitable for printing should be included for raster images [style ‘Figure caption’]

6.3Equations


Equations should be centred and may be numbered. To input an equation, go to Insert->Equation, type your equation followed directly (i.e. in the equation environment) by “#(N)” where N is the equation number you wish to use, and press enter. This should create the equation and the "(X)" equation number right-aligned. Alternatively, simply copy-paste the equation line below (which is an equation environment that includes the equation number) and change the equation and its number as you need. Equation paragraphs can be formatted using the style ‘Text First’ (but note that this does not actually change the font of the equation and its number that will remain Cambria Math).


6.4Front Header


In the header on the front page of your paper, please make sure the list of authors and paper title are updated. If you are submitting your manuscript to a CONVR or IGLC track, then please also replace “Vol. 1 (CIB W78)” with “Vol. 2 (CONVR)” or “Vol. 3 (IGLC)” accordingly. The rest of the reference, in particular page numbers and DOI, will be updated by the conference team (see below).

7.DOI


The Conference Chairs are currently investigating the feasibility to assign DOI numbers to all manuscripts submitted to all tracks. If successful, you will be informed of the DOI number of your paper. Furthermore, these will be added on the first page of your manuscript.

Note that, in accordance with the policy of the partner organisations (CIB W78, CONVR, and IGLC) the accepted papers will all be made publically available.

8.Submission


Authors must submit their work in Word document format through the Conference Management System at https://easychair.org/conferences/?conf=lc3. A Submission Guidelines document for Authors has also be prepared that you will find on the LC3 website and that will guide you through the submission process.

To achieve the desired quality of reproduction of papers accepted for inclusion in the proceedings, you may be asked to provide a separate file for each figure or table. However, you will avoid this extra work when you follow the here-provided instructions.

9.Conclusions


The instructions presented here have been used to format this paper. After you have formatted your paper accordingly, your submission should have the same look as the paper presented here.

The conference organizers and the editors will appreciate that you follow these instructions. They may return your paper for correction, or reject it altogether, if it does not conform to the required formatting.

10.Acknowledgments


We are glad to have completed this set of formatting instructions and hope they are clear. If not, please email the first author so we can improve them. We would like to thank in advance all authors who follow these instructions diligently. We would also like to thank those who have prepared past-years’ conference templates for IGLC and CIB W78 that we could build on.

11.References


Alarcon, L.F. (Ed.). (1997). Lean Construction. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Howell, G., Laufer, A., and Ballard, G. (1993). Interaction between Subcycles: One Key to Improved Methods. ASCE J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 119(4), pp. 714–728, doi:10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(1993)119:4(714), 714-728.

Martinez, J.C. (1996). STROBOSCOPE State and Resource Based Simulation of Construction Processes. PhD Diss., Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Microsoft (n.d.). Office Training Center. Available at: http://office.microsoft.com/training/training.aspx?assetid=rc011039261033 [Accessed 19 Feb. 2016].

Tommelein, I.D. (1998). Pull-driven Scheduling for Pipe-Spool Installation: Simulation of Lean Construction Technique. ASCE J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 124(4), pp. 279–288, doi: 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(1998)124%3A4(279).

Tommelein, I.D., and Ballard, G. (1997). Coordinating Specialists. Technical Report, Construction Engineering and Management Program, Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of California, Berkeley.

Tommelein, I.D., Riley, D., and Howell, G.A. (1999). Parade Game: Impact of Work Flow Variability on Trade Performance. ASCE J. Constr. Eng. Manage., 125(5), pp. 304–310, 10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9364(1999)125:5(304), 304-310.

12.Appendix: paper quality checklist


Does your paper use correct styles throughout?

Does your paper use the right page layout and dimensions?

Is the formatted paper 8 pages or less?

Are all figures ‘In line with text’?

Are your tables on a single page (if possible)?

Is your paper written in clear English?

Do the figures and tables appear after they are first referred to in the text?

Did you make your contribution above and beyond the current state of the art clear?

Do your conclusions fairly summarise the work accomplished and offer meaningful area(s) for further research?

1 Associate Professor, School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society, Leader of the CyberBuild Lab., Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK, f.n.bosche@hw.ac.uk

2 Laing O’Rourke Lecturer of Construction Engineering, Department of Engineering, Director of the Construction Information Technology Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK, ib340@cam.ac.uk

3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel, cvsacks@techunix.technion.ac.il [example of style Footnote Text]

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