Chapter 02: The Need for Security


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NameChapter 02: The Need for Security
A typeDocumentation
Chapter 02: The Need for Security
TRUE/FALSE
1. Information security’s primary mission is to ensure that systems and their contents retain their confidentiality at all costs.

ANS: F PTS: 1
2. Information security safeguards the technology assets in use at the organization.

ANS: T PTS: 1
3. A firewall is a mechanism that keeps certain kinds of network traffic out of a private network.

ANS: T PTS: 1
4. An act of theft performed by a hacker falls into the category of “theft,” but is also often accompanied by defacement actions to delay discovery and thus may also be placed within the category of “forces of nature.”

ANS: F PTS: 1
5. Two watchdog organizations that investigate allegations of software abuse: SIIA and NSA.

ANS: F PTS: 1
6. A number of technical mechanisms—digital watermarks and embedded code, copyright codes, and even the intentional placement of bad sectors on software media—have been used to enforce copyright laws.

ANS: T PTS: 1
7. A worm requires that another program is running before it can begin functioning.

ANS: F PTS: 1
8. A worm can deposit copies of itself onto all Web servers that the infected system can reach, so that users who subsequently visit those sites become infected.

ANS: T PTS: 1
9. Attacks conducted by scripts are usually unpredictable.

ANS: F PTS: 1
10. Expert hackers are extremely talented individuals who usually devote lots of time and energy to attempting to break into other people’s information systems.

ANS: T PTS: 1
11. With the removal of copyright protection, software can be easily distributed and installed.

ANS: T PTS: 1
12. Forces of nature, force majeure, or acts of God can present some of the most dangerous threats, because they are usually occur with very little warning and are beyond the control of people.

ANS: T PTS: 1
13. Much human error or failure can be prevented with training and ongoing awareness activities.

ANS: T PTS: 1
14. Compared to Web site defacement, vandalism within a network is less malicious in intent and more public.

ANS: F PTS: 1
15. With electronic information is stolen, the crime is readily apparent.

ANS: F PTS: 1
16. Organizations can use dictionaries to disallow passwords during the reset process and thus guard against easy-to-guess passwords.

ANS: T PTS: 1
17. DoS attacks cannot be launched against routers.

ANS: F PTS: 1
18. A mail bomb is a form of DoS.

ANS: T PTS: 1
19. A sniffer program shows all the data going by on a network segment including passwords, the data inside files—such as word-processing documents—and screens full of sensitive data from applications.

ANS: T PTS: 1
20. A timing attack involves the interception of cryptographic elements to determine keys and encryption algorithms.

ANS: T PTS: 1
MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE
1. Intellectual property is defined as “the ownership of ideas and control over the tangible or virtual representation of those ideas.” _________________________

ANS: T PTS: 1
2. The macro virus infects the key operating system files located in a computer’s boot sector. _________________________

ANS: F, boot

PTS: 1
3. Once a(n) back door has infected a computer, it can redistribute itself to all e-mail addresses found on the infected system. _________________________

ANS: F

virus

worm

PTS: 1
4. A(n) polymorphic threat is one that over time changes the way it appears to antivirus software programs, making it undetectable by techniques that look for preconfigured signatures. _________________________

ANS: T PTS: 1 -50
5. When voltage levels surge (experience a momentary increase), the extra voltage can severely damage or destroy equipment. _________________________

ANS: F, spike

PTS: 1
6. The shoulder looking technique is used in public or semipublic settings when individuals gather information they are not authorized to have by looking over another individual’s shoulder or viewing the information from a distance. _________________________

ANS: F, surfing

PTS: 1
7. Hackers are “people who use and create computer software to gain access to information illegally.” _________________________

ANS: T PTS: 1
8. Packet kiddies use automated exploits to engage in distributed denial-of-service attacks. _________________________

ANS: F, monkeys

PTS: 1
9. The term phreaker is now commonly associated with an individual who cracks or removes software protection that is designed to prevent unauthorized duplication. _________________________

ANS: F, cracker

PTS: 1
10. Cyberterrorists hack systems to conduct terrorist activities via network or Internet pathways. _________________________

ANS: T PTS: 1
11. The malicious code attack includes the execution of viruses, worms, Trojan horses, and active Web scripts with the intent to destroy or steal information. _________________________

ANS: T PTS: 1
12. The application of computing and network resources to try every possible combination of options of a password is called a brute crack attack. _________________________

ANS: F, force

PTS: 1
13. One form of e-mail attack that is also a DoS is called a mail spoof, in which an attacker routes large quantities of e-mail to the target. _________________________

ANS: F, bomb

PTS: 1
14. Sniffers often work on TCP/IP networks, where they’re sometimes called packet sniffers. _________________________

ANS: T PTS: 1
15. A(n) cookie can allow an attacker to collect information on how to access password-protected sites. _________________________

ANS: T PTS: 1
MULTIPLE CHOICE
1. Which of the following functions does information security perform for an organization?

a.

Protecting the organization’s ability to function.

b.

Enabling the safe operation of applications implemented on the organization’s IT systems.

c.

Protecting the data the organization collects and uses.

d.

All of the above.


ANS: D PTS: 1
2. ____ is an integrated system of software, encryption methodologies, and legal agreements that can be used to support the entire information infrastructure of an organization.

a.

SSL

c.

PKC

b.

PKI

d.

SIS


ANS: B PTS: 1
3. ____ are software programs that hide their true nature, and reveal their designed behavior only when activated.

a.

Viruses

c.

Spam

b.

Worms

d.

Trojan horses


ANS: D PTS: 1
4. Which of the following is an example of a Trojan horse program?

a.

Netsky

c.

Klez

b.

MyDoom

d.

Happy99.exe


ANS: D PTS: 1
5. As frustrating as viruses and worms are, perhaps more time and money is spent on resolving virus ____.

a.

false alarms

c.

hoaxes

b.

power faults

d.

urban legends


ANS: C PTS: 1
6. Web hosting services are usually arranged with an agreement providing minimum service levels known as a(n) ____.

a.

SSL

c.

MSL

b.

SLA

d.

MIN


ANS: B PTS: 1
7. Complete loss of power for a moment is known as a ____.

a.

sag

c.

brownout

b.

fault

d.

blackout


ANS: B PTS: 1
8. Acts of ____ can lead to unauthorized real or virtual actions that enable information gatherers to enter premises or systems they have not been authorized to enter.

a.

bypass

c.

trespass

b.

nature

d.

security


ANS: C PTS: 1
9. There are generally two skill levels among hackers: expert and ____.

a.

novice

c.

packet monkey

b.

journeyman

d.

professional


ANS: A PTS: 1
10. One form of online vandalism is ____ operations, which interfere with or disrupt systems to protest the operations, policies, or actions of an organization or government agency.

a.

hacktivist

c.

hackcyber

b.

phvist

d.

cyberhack


ANS: A PTS: 1
11. According to Mark Pollitt, ____ is the premeditated, politically motivated attacks against information, computer systems, computer programs, and data which result in violence against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents.

a.

infoterrorism

c.

hacking

b.

cyberterrorism

d.

cracking


ANS: B PTS: 1
12. ____ is any technology that aids in gathering information about a person or organization without their knowledge.

a.

A bot

c.

Trojan

b.

Spyware

d.

Worm


ANS: B PTS: 1
13. The ____ data file contains the hashed representation of the user’s password.

a.

SLA

c.

FBI

b.

SNMP

d.

SAM


ANS: D PTS: 1
14. In a ____ attack, the attacker sends a large number of connection or information requests to a target.

a.

denial-of-service

c.

virus

b.

distributed denial-of-service

d.

spam


ANS: A PTS: 1
15. A ____ is an attack in which a coordinated stream of requests is launched against a target from many locations at the same time.

a.

denial-of-service

c.

virus

b.

distributed denial-of-service

d.

spam


ANS: B PTS: 1
16. ____ are machines that are directed remotely (usually by a transmitted command) by the attacker to participate in an attack.

a.

Drones

c.

Zombies

b.

Helpers

d.

Servants


ANS: C PTS: 1
17. In the well-known ____ attack, an attacker monitors (or sniffs) packets from the network, modifies them, and inserts them back into the network.

a.

zombie-in-the-middle

c.

server-in-the-middle

b.

sniff-in-the-middle

d.

man-in-the-middle


ANS: D PTS: 1
18. The ____ hijacking attack uses IP spoofing to enable an attacker to impersonate another entity on the network.

a.

WWW

c.

FTP

b.

TCP

d.

HTTP


ANS: B PTS: 1
19. “4-1-9” fraud is an example of a ____ attack.

a.

social engineering

c.

worm

b.

virus

d.

spam


ANS: A PTS: 1
20. Microsoft acknowledged that if you type a res:// URL (a Microsoft-devised type of URL) which is longer than ____ characters in Internet Explorer 4.0, the browser will crash.

a.

64

c.

256

b.

128

d.

512


ANS: C PTS: 1
COMPLETION
1. A(n) ____________________ is an object, person, or other entity that represents an ongoing danger to an asset.

ANS: threat

PTS: 1
2. Duplication of software-based intellectual property is more commonly known as software ____________________.

ANS: piracy

PTS: 1
3. A computer virus consists of segments of code that perform ____________________ actions.

ANS: malicious

PTS: 1
4. A(n) ____________________ is a malicious program that replicates itself constantly, without requiring another program environment.

ANS: worm

PTS: 1
5. A virus or worm can have a payload that installs a(n) ____________________ door or trap door component in a system, which allows the attacker to access the system at will with special privileges.

ANS: back

PTS: 1
6. A momentary low voltage is called a(n) ____________________.

ANS: sag

PTS: 1
7. Some information gathering techniques are quite legal, for example, using a Web browser to perform market research. These legal techniques are called, collectively, competitive ____________________.

ANS: intelligence

PTS: 1
8. When information gatherers employ techniques that cross the threshold of what is legal or ethical, they are conducting industrial ____________________.

ANS: espionage

PTS: 1
9. The expert hacker sometimes is called ____________________ hacker.

ANS: elite

PTS: 1
10. Script ____________________ are hackers of limited skill who use expertly written software to attack a system.

ANS: kiddies

PTS: 1
11. A(n) ____________________ hacks the public telephone network to make free calls or disrupt services.

ANS: phreaker

PTS: 1
12. ESD means electrostatic ____________________.

ANS: discharge

PTS: 1
13. A(n) ____________________ is an act that takes advantage of a vulnerability to compromise a controlled system.

ANS: attack

PTS: 1
14. A(n) ____________________ is an identified weakness in a controlled system, where controls are not present or are no longer effective.

ANS: vulnerability

PTS: 1
15. Attempting to reverse-calculate a password is called ____________________.

ANS: cracking

PTS: 1
16. ____________________ is a technique used to gain unauthorized access to computers, wherein the intruder sends messages with a source IP address that has been forged to indicate that the messages are coming from a trusted host.

ANS: Spoofing

PTS: 1
17. ____________________ is unsolicited commercial e-mail.

ANS: Spam

PTS: 1
18. In the context of information security, ____________________ is the process of using social skills to convince people to reveal access credentials or other valuable information to the attacker.

ANS: social engineering

PTS: 1
19. The timing attack explores the contents of a Web browser’s ____________________.

ANS: cache

PTS: 1
20. A(n) ____________________ is an application error that occurs when more data is sent to a program buffer than it is designed to handle.

ANS:

buffer overrun

buffer overflow

PTS: 1
ESSAY
1. List at least six general categories of threat.

ANS:

Compromises to intellectual property

Software attacks

Deviations in quality of service

Espionage or trespass

Forces of nature

Human error or failure

Information extortion

Missing, inadequate, or incomplete

Missing, inadequate, or incomplete controls

Sabotage or vandalism

Theft

Technical hardware failures or errors

Technical software failures or errors

Technological obsolescence

PTS: 1
2. Describe viruses and worms.

ANS:

A computer virus consists of segments of code that perform malicious actions. This code behaves very much like a virus pathogen attacking animals and plants, using the cell’s own replication machinery to propagate and attack. The code attaches itself to the existing program and takes control of that program’s access to the targeted computer. The virus-controlled target program then carries out the virus’s plan, by replicating itself into additional targeted systems.
A worm is a malicious program that replicates itself constantly, without requiring another program to provide a safe environment for replication. Worms can continue replicating themselves until they completely fill available resources, such as memory, hard drive space, and network bandwidth.

PTS: 1 - 47
3. Describe the capabilities of a sniffer.

ANS:

A sniffer is a program or device that can monitor data traveling over a network. Sniffers can be used both for legitimate network management functions and for stealing information from a network. Unauthorized sniffers can be extremely dangerous to a network’s security, because they are virtually impossible to detect and can be inserted almost anywhere. This makes them a favorite weapon in the hacker’s arsenal. Sniffers often work on TCP/IP networks, where they’re sometimes called packet sniffers. Sniffers add risk to the network, because many systems and users send information on local networks in clear text. A sniffer program shows all the data going by, including passwords, the data inside files and screens full of sensitive data from applications.

PTS: 1

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