A laboratory (ex: calculator based lab involving Boyle’s Law concepts) would be conducted where students are collecting data, graphing and interpreting the graph


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NameA laboratory (ex: calculator based lab involving Boyle’s Law concepts) would be conducted where students are collecting data, graphing and interpreting the graph
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Unit J: The Nature of Gases and Liquids 15 days

Overview

Next Generation Sunshine State Standards

Content Standards

Nature of Science Practices

Students extend their knowledge of chemistry as they study kinetic theory and how it defines gas behavior and properties of gases and liquids. Students make relevant learning connections as they are actively engaged in laboratory investigations. Students understand and practice safe research practices in the classroom laboratory.
Fundamental Skills:

  • States of matter

  • Science laboratory safety practices including an SDS.

SC.912.P.10.5

SC.912.P.12.10

SC.912.P.12.11


SC.912.N.1.1

SC.912.N.3.1


Other Resources

A laboratory (ex: calculator based lab involving Boyle’s Law concepts) would be conducted where students are collecting data, graphing and interpreting the graph.
Volatile Liquids can be used for lab investigations involving the determination of molar mass and the ideal gas law.
Virtual Lab Link: http://jersey.uoregon.edu/vlab/Pison/ (Charles’ & Boyle’s Laws)
Boyle’s Law Virtual Lab Link: http://group.chem.iastate.edu/Greenbowe/sections/projectfolder/flashfiles/gaslaw/boyles_law.swfhttp://group.chem.iastate.edu/Greenbowe/sections/projectfolder/flashfiles/gaslaw/boyles_law.swf

http://group.chem.iastate.edu/Greenbowe/sections/projectfolder/flashfiles/gaslaw/boyles_law.swf

Charles’ Law Virtual Lab Link: http://group.chem.iastate.edu/Greenbowe/sections/projectfolder/flashfiles/gaslaw/charles_law.htmlhttp://group.chem.iastate.edu/Greenbowe/sections/projectfolder/flashfiles/gaslaw/charles_law.html

Molar Volume of a Gas Lab is also possible



Unpacking the Standard: What do we want students to Know, Understand and Do (KUD):

The purpose of creating a Know, Understand, and Do Map (KUD) is to further the unwrapping of a standard to assist PLCs in answering question #1, “What do we expect all students to learn?” It is important for PLCs to study the standards in the unit to ensure that all members have a mutual understanding of what student learning will look and sound like when the standards are achieved.

Unit J: The Nature of Gases and Liquids What properties of gases and liquids emerge as a result of kinetic theory?

SC.912.P.10.5 Relate temperature to the average molecular kinetic energy

SC.912.P.12.10 Interpret the behavior of ideal gases in terms of kinetic molecular theory.

SC.912.P.12.11 Describe phase transitions in terms of kinetic molecular theory.

Understand

Essential understandings,” or generalizations, represent ideas that are transferable to other contexts.

Students will understand the concept of kinetic theory and how it relates to properties of gases and liquids

Know

Declarative knowledge: Facts, vocab., information

Do

Procedural knowledge: Skills, strategies and processes that are transferrable to other contexts.

Identify different gas laws and be able to use their corresponding formulas.
How to algebraically rearrange the gas law expression.
Concepts of STP , ideal and non-ideal gas
Concept of pressure and the different units, which accompany it.
The use of stoichiometry in relation to gas laws
Proportionality of Kelvin temperature of a substance to the average kinetic energy of the particles of the substance.
The interplay between the disruptive motions of particles in a liquid and the attractions among the particles determines the physical properties of liquids.
In a system at constant vapor pressure, a dynamic equilibrium exists between the vapor and the liquid. The rates of evaporation and condensation are equal.

At a temperature at which the particles throughout a liquid have enough kinetic energy to vaporize, the liquid begins to boil


Identify different gas laws and be able to use their corresponding formulas.
Students will be able to convert between different units of pressure.
Students will do extensive practice problems on the gas laws, especially the ideal gas law.
Students will explain what is meant by boiling point of a liquid.
Explain the use of stoichiometry in relation to gas laws.

Performance Task:

Gases Performance tasks: various

http://bhsd228.schoolwires.net/cms/lib6/IL01001099/Centricity/Domain/12/UbD_-_States_of_Matter.pdf


Unit J: The Nature of Gases and Liquids

SC.912.P.12.10* Interpret the behavior of ideal gases in terms of kinetic molecular theory.


Sample Scale

Sample Performance Tasks

Score 4.0

In addition to 3.0, in-depth inferences and applications that go beyond what was taught, I can:

  • Relate the behavior of real gases to ideal gases
  • Evaluate the criteria for an ideal gas and analyze how real gases behave like ideal gases and how they differ.


Score 3.5

I can do everything at a 3.0, and I can demonstrate partial success at score 4.0.

Score 3.0

I can:

  • Given a set of conditions, predict the behavior of a real gas

  • Understand the relationship between number of particles and pressure of a gas

  • Explain the relationship between particle collisions, pressure and number of particles

  • Construct a graph from data to show the relationship between pressure and volume

  • Apply the ideal gas law to determine the mass or density of a gas

Score 2.5

I can do everything at a 2.0, and I can demonstrate partial success at score 3.0.

Score 2.0

I can:

  • Identify the basis properties of gases

  • Explain the kinetic molecular theory as it applies to gases

  • Differentiate between gas laws in a problem-solving situation

  • There are no major errors or omission regarding the simpler details and processes; however, the student exhibits major errors or omissions regarding the more complex ideas and processes.

  • Apply the appropriate gas law to a word problem and correctly rearrange the formula

  • Interpret a graph showing inverse and linear relationships between variables of gases

  • Identify the variables in a gas law problem and re-arrange a gas law formula with limited accuracy.

Score 1.5

I can do everything at a 1.0, and I can demonstrate partial success at score 2.0.

Score 1.0

With help, a partial understanding of some of the simpler details and processes and some of the more complex ideas and processes.

  • identify the basic properties of gases

  • explain the kinetic molecular theory as it applies to gases







Key Learning: Students will understand kinetic theory and how it defines gas behavior and properties of liquids.

Concept: Kinetic Theory

Driving Questions:

Sample Formative Assessment Task

Vocabulary:

Kinetic Theory, Atmospheric Pressure, Absolute Zero, STP, properties of gases: space, mass, no definite shape, elastic collisions, compressibility, fluidity, low density, expands to fill containers, average kinetic energy, Kelvin temperature

Benchmark

SC.912.P.10.5*

Relate temperature to the average molecular kinetic energy

SC.912.N.3.1Explain that a scientific theory is the culmination of many scientific investigations drawing together all the current evidence concerning a substantial range of phenomena; thus, a scientific theory represents the most powerful explanation scientists have to offer.


What are the three assumptions of the kinetic theory as it applies to gases?

Students can list the assumptions of the kinetic molecular theory as it applies to gases.

Student Investigations

https://www.flinnsci.com/teacher-resources/teacher-resource-videos/best-practices-for-teaching-chemistry/gas-laws/


Resources

Student Text:

Prentice Hall Chemistry Chapters 12 & 13

Holt Modern Chemistry Chapter 10 & 11
Hot Air Balloons- Gas and Go

http://www.acs.org/content/dam/acsorg/education/resources/highschool/chemmatters/articlesbytopic/solidsliquidsgases/chemmatters-april2002-hot-air-balloons.pdf


Student Misconceptions:

Students may think that the size of one unit is the same for all temperature scales. The size of a kelvin is exactly the same as the size of a Celsius degree, but the Fahrenheit unit differs in size. In the Celsius-Fahrenheit relationship, one Celsius unit is nine-fifths the size of a Fahrenheit unit.

Deeper Learning Opportunities:
Argument-Driven Inquiry in Chemistry- Sampson, et al.

Lab #15- The Ideal Gas Law



Concept: Gas Laws

Driving Questions:

Sample Formative Assessment Task

Vocabulary:

Temperature, pressure, volume, mole, Boyle’s Law, Gay-Lussac’s Law, Charles’ Law, Ideal Gas Law, Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure, Avogadro’s Law, gas constant “R”, Stoichiometry of Gases

Benchmark:

SC.912.P.10.5*

Relate temperature to the average molecular kinetic energy.


What are the formulas for the different gas laws and how can variables within the equations be solved?


Gas Law Problems

Student Investigations

https://www.flinnsci.com/teacher-resources/teacher-resource-videos/best-practices-for-teaching-chemistry/gas-laws/



Resources

Student Text:

Prentice Hall Chemistry Chapters 12 & 13

Holt Modern Chemistry Chapter 10 & 11

Student Misconceptions:

-Students frequently think that the gas laws apply to real gases. Remind students that the gas laws are abstractions that apply to ideal gases and that they apply to real gases only as an approximation. Discuss the properties that prevent real gases from acting like ideal gases.

-Students often are unclear about whether gas law references to pressure refer to pressure exerted on the gas or pressure exerted by the gas. Point out that in most cases the two quantities are the same.

-Students may wonder about the fact that temperature measurement has lowest possible value (0 K) but no maximum value. Discuss with them the relationship between temperature and particle motion.

Deeper Learning Opportunities:
Argument-Driven Inquiry in Chemistry- Sampson, et al.

Lab #15- The Ideal Gas Law

Concept: Ideal Gases

Driving Questions:

Sample Formative Assessment Task

Vocabulary:

Real Gas

Ideal Gas


Benchmark(s):

SC.912.P.12.10*

Interpret the behavior of ideal gases in terms of kinetic molecular theory.


What is the behavior of an ideal gas in terms of kinetic molecular theory?

Have students discuss instances in which real and ideal situations exist.

Student Investigations

Students can perform an experiment involving a volatile liquid to study deviations from the ideal gas law due to intermolecular forces

Resources

Student Text:

Prentice Hall Chemistry Chapters 12 & 13

Holt Modern Chemistry Chapter 10 & 11

Student Misconceptions:

Students frequently think that the gas laws apply to real gases. Remind students that the gas laws are abstractions that apply to ideal gases and that they apply to real gases only as an approximation. Discuss the properties that prevent real gases from acting like ideal gases.

Deeper Learning Opportunities:

Argument-Driven Inquiry in Chemistry- Sampson, et al.

Lab #15- The Ideal Gas Law


Concept: Conversion between Units

Driving Questions:

Sample Formative Assessment Task

Vocabulary:

Dimensional analysis, atmosphere, mm Hg, Pascal, torr

Benchmark(s):

SC.912.P.10.5*

Relate temperature to the average molecular kinetic energy.

How do you convert between pressure units?

In terms of pressure, have students explain why shoes with small-diameter heels are often not allowed on a gymnasium floor.

Student Investigations

Bell Jar Boiling of Water at Lower Temperature

Resources

Student Text:

Prentice Hall Chemistry Chapters 12 & 13

Holt Modern Chemistry Chapter 10 & 11

Student Misconceptions:

Pressure changes with altitude. As you increase altitude, pressure decreases.

Deeper Learning Opportunities:





Concept: Nature of Liquids

Driving Questions:

Sample Formative Assessment Task

Vocabulary:

Vaporization, vapor pressure, boiling point, normal boiling point


Benchmark

SC.912.P.12.11*

Describe phase transitions in terms of kinetic molecular theory.

SC.912.L.18.12*

See bonding unit


What factors determine the physical properties of liquids?

Under what conditions does boiling occur in a liquid?


Have students do an experiment to determine the concentration of salt required to prevent 500 mL of an aqueous solution from freezing when placed in their home freezer overnight.



Student Investigations

Rock Salt/Ice Bath Lab

Melting/Freezing Point of Lauric Acid

Resources

Student Text:

Prentice Hall Chemistry Chapters 12 & 13

Holt Modern Chemistry Chapter 10 & 11




Clouds:

http://www.acs.org/content/dam/acsorg/education/resources/highschool/chemmatters/articlesbytopic/solidsliquidsgases/chemmatters-oct2003-clouds.pdf

Student Misconceptions:

Students may think that adding salt to cooking water raises the boiling point and causes food to cook faster.

Deeper Learning Opportunities:
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