Adams, J. D., & Bush, V. B. (2013). The relationship between Supplemental Instruction leader learning style and study session


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Adams, J. D., & Bush, V. B. (2013). The relationship between Supplemental Instruction leader learning style and study session. The Learning Assistance Review, 18(2), 51-65.

The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the learning styles of Supplemental Instruction leaders at a large, public university during the fall 2010 semester and determine whether or not their personal learning styles influenced the way they designed and developed out-of-class study sessions. The total population of Supplemental Instruction leaders was 37, of which 24 were eligible to participate in the study. Of the 24 eligible supplemental instruction leaders, 20 completed the entire study. Participants in the study included nine male and 11 female supplemental instruction leaders with a median age of 22.25 years-old. Seventeen participants indicated their classification as senior, two as junior, and one as sophomore. Of the participants, 16 indicated white as a race or ethnicity, one indicated Asian, two indicated African American, and one indicated both American Indian/Alaska Native and white. Supplemental instruction leader learning style was assessed using the Kolb Learning Style Inventory. Leaders were then interviewed, and their study sessions were analyzed. Through triangulation of data from learning style, interviews and actual study session documents, four major themes emerged. The four themes were: 1) incorporation of personal experience into study session design, 2) the sense of impact on student learning, 3) a feeling of the need to incorporate varied activities into study session design, and 4) the concept that students must take ownership over their own learning. No consistent pattern emerged among the themes; however, the results attributed out-of-class study session design to both the incorporation of personal learning style preferences as identified through the Kolb Learning Style Inventory and training conducted by the institution. Implications for future research include the need for continued research addressing how and if Supplemental Instruction leader learning style influences out-of-class study session design. Also, as institutions of higher education seek to expand academic support services to all students, future research should explore Supplemental Instruction leader training and the impact such training has on students seeking support from the Supplemental Instruction program.
Alberte, J. L., Cruz, A., Rodriguez, N., & Pitzer, T. (2012). PLTL in pajamas: Lessons learned. Conference Proceedings of the Peer-led Team Learning International Society Inaugural Conference, Brooklyn, NY. Retrieved from http://pltlis.org/wp-content/uploads/2012%20Proceedings/Alberte-2012.docx

Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) in the Biology Department at Florida International University (FIU) incorporates the use of “cyber” learning (cPLTL). Using laptops and cameras, students and Peer Leaders communicate in real time, fulfilling the requirements of the standard model of PLTL. Participants are trained in the use of required software and technology. Initial observations indicate that students perform at least as well in cPLTL as in traditional workshops. Students who cannot or will not attend in-person PLTL workshops are able to take advantage of the boost. FIU is successfully moving toward cPLTL institutionalization alongside the in-person model.
Alberte, J. L., Cruz, A., Rodriguez, N., & Pitzer, T. (2012). The PLTL leader boost. Conference Proceedings of the Peer-led Team Learning International Society Inaugural Conference, Brooklyn, NY. Retrieved from http://pltlis.org/wp-content/uploads/2012%20Proceedings/Alberte-3-2012.docx

Qualitative data has demonstrated the impact of PLTL on a Peer Leader’s academic performance. In this paper we quantitatively show the presence of the Peer Leader boost at Florida International University. Just as in any apprenticeship role, Peer Leaders undergo an extensive training program and it is this experience which provides an advantage. Training includes pedagogy, classroom dynamics, science concepts, and critical thinking skills equipping Peer Leaders with the necessary skills to manage a productive active learning environment. Initial observations and feedback indicate that participation as a Peer Leader adds value such as enculturation in the discipline, increased performance in traditionally assessed learning outcomes, and increased retention within the discipline. Preliminary data demonstrates a significant difference in the academic success of Peer Leaders in their own course work. This analysis was performed on large enrollment upper-level courses which indicated up to a letter grade difference between Peer Leaders and non-Peer Leaders.
Arendale, D. R. (1995). Self-assessment for adjunct instructional programs. In S. Clark-Thayer (Ed.), NADE Self-Evaluation Guides: Models for assessing learning assistance/developmental education programs (pp. 49-87). Clearwater, FL: H&H Publishing Company

This chapter provides a framework for evaluating a campus Supplemental Instruction (SI) program regarding a variety of issues: mission, goals, and objectives; program activities; program administration; human resources; facilities; value system; awareness of individual differences; and program evaluation. Adjunct instructional programs (AIPs) are defined as those forms of group collaborative learning assistance that accompany a specific targeted course to serve as a supplement for that course. These AIP activities occur outside of class.
Arendale, D. R. (2001). Effect of administrative placement and fidelity of implementation of the model of effectiveness of Supplemental Instruction programs. (Ph.D. dissertation), University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO. Retrieved from ERIC database. (ED480590).

This 456 page research study investigated variables that may influence effectiveness of the Supplemental Instruction learning assistance and enrichment program at the University of Missouri-Kansas City and other U.S. postsecondary institutions. Study number one analyzed variables related to academic performance of University of Missouri-Kansas City students (mean final course grades, rate of course withdrawal, and rate of persistence). Study number two investigated variables at 735 U.S. postsecondary institutions related to academic performance of students and satisfaction level with the campus Supplemental Instruction program. Independent variables included: administrative placement of the SI program unit (academic affairs, student affairs, or other), age of the SI program, fidelity of the program to SI program activity constructs (SI Supervisor involvement, SI Leader involvement, SI Leader training, institutional involvement), and four dependent variables (mean final course grades, mean percent of D and F final course grades and course withdrawals, mean percent of students who participate in the program, and satisfaction level with the program). Study number one found positive correlation between higher academic achievement and persistence rates with the independent variables of SI attendance and measures of precollegiate academic achievement. The entire known population of 735 SI programs within the United States was selected for study number two. There were statistically significant positive correlations with three of the four program activity constructs (SI Supervisor Involvement, SI Leader Involvement, and SI Leader training) and the effectiveness of the program regarding improved student outcomes and higher satisfaction ratings by the campus administrators who supervised the program. There were no statistically significant differences between the different program administrative placement locations and the dependent variables. Implications from this research include identification of key activities within the program that should be observed to maximize program effectiveness for the institution and participating students. Besides the two quantitative studies, an extensive review of the literature regarding the history of developmental education and learning assistance programs in the United States produced six discernable historical phases. Supplemental Instruction was placed within this social context in American history. The appendix includes an extensive annotated bibliography of 450 publications and other media types published by authors worldwide related to Supplemental Instruction.
Arendale, D. R. (2009). Course-based Learning Assistance (CLA) program guide. In S. Clark-Thayer & L. P. Cole (Eds.), NADE self-evaluation guides: Best practice in academic support programs (2nd ed., pp. 105-138). Clearwater, FL: H&H Publishing.

These program standards provide guidance for management of postsecondary peer cooperative learning programs such as Accelerated Learning Groups (ALGs), Emerging Scholars Program (ESP), Peer Assisted Learning Groups (PAL), Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL), Supplemental Instruction (SI), Structured Learning Assistance (SLA), and Video-based Supplemental Instruction (VSI). These standards were developed through extensive field testing of professionals in the field operating these peer learning programs. There are six sections to the chapter: mission and goals; assessment and evaluation; program design and activities; human resources; and value system. The items within each section are divided between essential (important for any peer learning program) and recommended (useful for some peer learning programs due to their design). A more detailed examination of assessment and evaluation of peer learning programs is provided elsewhere in the larger publication.
Arendale, D. R. (2014). Seminar course approach for study group leader training. NADE Digest, 6(2), 1-11. Retrieved from http://nade.net/site/documents/publications/Digest/Spring%202014%20v1%281%29%20web.pdf.

At the University of Minnesota during fall 2006, a college-credit course was created to help group leaders apply educational theories during their study group sessions with the campus Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) program. This course was required of all new group leaders starting during fall semester. Rather than a didactic class format led by me as the instructor, a collaborative seminar model was employed. In the class, these students studied education theory articles and discussed how to apply this information to their weekly sessions. This understanding helped them create new learning activities not contained in the formal training program. It also made better sense of dynamics within the group and how to employ culturally-sensitive learning activities. This course was part of a larger required professional development component for the study group leaders. The course has seven learning objectives: (1) Identify and discuss the application of learning theories with peer-assisted learning groups. (2) Increase skill in small group management skills to achieve learning objectives. (3) Contextualize learning strategy modeling and instruction within the specific academic context area supported by PAL. (4) Learn to analyze the learning needs of others and make modifications to the learning environment. (5) Grow as an independent learner and build upon their current strengths through development of new learning strategies. (6) Further develop intellectual skills of analysis, synthesis, critical evaluation, and application through completion of course activities. (7) Adopt new strategic learning strategies to successfully apply with course material. The course requires students to make weekly journal entries through the course web site which is only viewable by the course instructor. The entries focus on the reflections about their academic and personal changes as a result of this experience. In addition, the PAL facilitators complete an extensive end-of-term experience survey as a capstone reflection of their experience and how they changed academically and personally.
Arendale, D. R., & Hane, A. R. (2016). College credit training and professional development course for PAL facilitators. Unpublished manuscript. Department of Postsecondary Teaching and Learning, University of Minnesota. Minneapolis, MN.

At the University of Minnesota during fall 2006, a college-credit course was created to help group leaders apply educational theories during their study group sessions with the campus Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) program. The Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) program at the University of Minnesota is a primary academic support program for historically difficult, introductory college courses that serve as gatekeepers to academic degree programs. Based upon operating principles of other programs and educational theories, PAL is integrated into the courses it serves. This course was required of all new group leaders starting during fall semester. Rather than a didactic class format led by me as the instructor, a collaborative seminar model was employed. In the class, these students studied education theory articles and discussed how to apply this information to their weekly sessions. This understanding helped them create new learning activities not contained in the formal training program. It also made better sense of dynamics within the group and how to employ culturally-sensitive learning activities. This course was part of a larger required professional development component for the study group leaders. The course has seven learning objectives: (1) Identify and discuss the application of learning theories with peer-assisted learning groups. (2) Increase skill in small group management skills to achieve learning objectives. (3) Contextualize learning strategy modeling and instruction within the specific academic context area supported by PAL. (4) Learn to analyze the learning needs of others and make modifications to the learning environment. (5) Grow as an independent learner and build upon their current strengths through development of new learning strategies. (6) Further develop intellectual skills of analysis, synthesis, critical evaluation, and application through completion of course activities. (7) Adopt new strategic learning strategies to successfully apply with course material. The course requires students to make weekly journal entries through the course web site which is only viewable by the course instructor. The entries focus on the reflections about their academic and personal changes as a result of this experience. In addition, the PAL facilitators complete an extensive end-of-term experience survey as a capstone reflection of their experience and how they changed academically and personally.
Arendale, D. R., & Lilly, M. (Eds.). (2014). Guide for Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) facilitators. Minneapolis, MN: Department of Postsecondeary Teaching and Learning, College of Education and Human Development, University of Minnesota.Retrieved from http://z.umn.edu/facilitatortoolkit

The 180+ training workbook is used with the student facilitators of the Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) program at the University of Minnesota. Following a basic overview of the PAL model, the workbook is organized around the basic principles upon which the PAL program operates: (a) theory guides PAL learning activities; (b) express multicultural competency; (c) facilitate a blend of PAL session activities; (d) shift PAL session authority and ownership to the participating students; (e) both facilitators and participants model productive learning behaviors during the study sessions; (f) PAL sessions vary in different academic content areas; (g) model student self-monitoring strategies; and (h) engage students with each other regarding the academic content. The workbook also incorporates stories from the PAL facilitators and their experiences in the program. These stories are excerpted from a longer book edited by Lana Walker in 2010, Two (or more) heads are better than one: Adventures in leading group learning, a facilitator storybook. The Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) program at the University of Minnesota is a primary academic support program for historically difficult, introductory college courses that serve as gatekeepers to academic degree programs. Based upon operating principles of other programs and educational theories, PAL is integrated into the courses it serves.
Arendale, D. R., & Lilly, M. (2014).
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