Descriptive Statistics

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Running head: STATISTICS

Introduction to Statistics

Ericka Tolbert

Governors State University
Overall, your paper reads more as if it is a syllabus instead of a description of your overall course design. Some design information is provided but much of it is missing based on the sections we were to create. I have listed below the comments and questions based on information I felt was missing from the description of your course design.
Welcome to Introduction to Statistics, I am Ericka Tolbert and I will be your professor for this semester. On the home page you should see a link that takes you to the modules for this course. The modules include all the lessons and homework that we will be working on throughout the semester.

All assignments are due on Friday, but feel free to work a little ahead if you are comfortable doing so. If you have any questions, feel free to email me or stop by my office during office hours. I look forward to having a good semester with all of you.


This course is a study of descriptive statistics including graphical representation, central tendency, correlation and regression, intuitive treatment of probability and inferential statistics including hypothesis testing.


  1. Develop an appreciation of the importance of being an intelligent consumer of statistics.

  2. Guide students through the fundamental understanding of statistical terminology and concepts.

  3. Provide instruction on how to apply statistical methods to organize and display data.

  4. Develop student skills in using sample data to make inferences about populations.

  5. Provide exposure to interpreting the outcome of research studies using sample means.

  6. Examine the relationship between sets of data and discuss the implications of that relationship.


  1. Introduction to the field of statistics

    1. Identify the different ways statistics is used in the real world.

    2. Describe the difference between populations and samples and the role they play in statistical studies.

    3. Identify the research method appropriate for a study.

    4. Classify different types of variable(s) and their scales of measurement.

    5. Translate mathematical notation to complete statistical computations correctly.

  2. Descriptive Statistics

    1. Frequency Distributions

      1. Organize raw data in a regular or grouped frequency distribution table.

      2. Organize data into frequency distribution graphs, including bar graphs, histograms, and polygons.

      3. Comprehend and analyze data that are presented in a graph.

      4. Identify the shape of a distribution shown in a frequency distribution graph.

    2. Central Tendency

      1. Explain the purpose of measuring central tendency.

      2. Define and compute the mean, median, and mode of a distribution.

      3. Decide which measure of central tendency is appropriate, given the circumstances of the distribution of scores.

      4. Describe how the mean, median, and mode are related to each other in symmetrical and skewed distributions.

    3. Variability

      1. Define and calculate the range of a set of scores.

      2. Calculate and interpret the variance and standard deviation of a population.

      3. Calculate and interpret the variance and standard deviation of a sample.

      4. Calculate variance and standard deviation using the computational formula.

      5. Calculate and interpret the Quartiles and the IQR.  Use the 5-number summary to draw a box plot.

  3. Foundations of Inferential Statistics

    1. z- Scores

      1. Define z-scores.

      2. Transform raw scores into z-scores.

      3. Transform z-score into raw scores.

    2. Probability

      1. Calculate probabilities for experiments with equally likely outcomes.

      2. Interpret how likely an event will be depending upon the probability of the event.

      3. Calculate probabilities for a binomial experiment using the binomial probability formula.

    3. Normal Distribution

      1. Identify the properties of a normal distribution.

      2. Calculate probabilities for a standard normal distribution using a standard normal probability table.

      3. Solve application problems for the normal distribution.

      4. Compute binomial probabilities using the normal approximation to the binomial distribution.

      5. Define the sampling distribution of sample means.

      6. Define and calculate the expected value and standard error for the sampling distribution of the sample means.

      7. Apply the central limit theorem to solve application problems involving the sampling distribution of the sample mean.

  4. Inferential Statistics

    1. Hypothesis testing

      1. Perform a large sample hypothesis z-test for the sample mean.

      2. Interpret the results of a hypothesis test in context of significance levels and Type I and Type II Errors.

      3. Perform a small sample hypothesis t-test for the sample mean.

      4. Perform a hypothesis test for the difference between two population means.

    2. Confidence Intervals

      1. Interpret the relationship between confidence intervals and estimation.

      2. Construct a confidence interval for a population mean for large samples.

      3. Construct a confidence interval for a population mean for small samples.

  5. Correlation and Regression

  1. Construct scatter plots and determine whether there is a positive or negative correlation.

  2. Compute and interpret the Pearson Correlation Coefficient for bivariate data.

  3. Find the equation for the linear regression line.  Use the equation to predict the dependent variable for a given value of the independent variable.


  1. CRITICAL THINKING/PROBLEM SOLVING: - Students will acquire, evaluate, and analyze information; develop sound reasoning skills; and apply the principles of the scientific method.

  2. QUANTITATIVE REASONING/INDUSTRY COMPETENCY: - Students will develop skills in problem-solving, logical thinking, and application of mathematical processes. Students operationalize skills, attitudes, and reasoning to consistently recognize problems and assertively and accurately address them.


Text: Elementary Statistics: A Brief Version


The integrity of an academic program and degree rests on the principle that the grades awarded to students must reflect only their own individual efforts and achievement. Students are required to perform the work specified by the instructor and are responsible for the content of work submitted, such as papers, reports, examinations, and other work. Violations of academic integrity include various types of plagiarism and cheating.

*Plagiarism includes, but is not limited to:

• Using exact words from a source without appropriate crediting.

• Cutting and pasting electronically from any source without appropriate crediting.

• Using wording and/or sentence structure too close to the original in paraphrasing.

• Using visual images in whole or in part created by someone else without appropriate crediting.

• Buying a paper and presenting any part of it as your own.

• Borrowing any part of a paper and presenting it as your own without appropriate crediting.

• Falsifying or inventing any information or citation in an academic exercise.

*Cheating includes, but is not limited to:

• Obtaining or giving assistance in any academic work such as on quizzes, tests, homework, etc., without instructor's consent.

• Taking a test or course or turning in work for someone else.

• Allowing someone to take a test or course or turn in work in your name.

• Using crib notes or electronic devices to get unauthorized assistance on tests or other in-class work.

• Using work from another class or previous semester without instructor consent.


Each enrolled student is provided a free email account while in attendance. The school sends important college information including your grades, attendance, graduation, etc. by email only. All email communication between faculty, advisors, staff and students will only be through this account.


The college strives for student-centered, quality education with flexibility to allow for students’ special needs. Students with physical, mental, or learning disabilities should contact the Special Needs Coordinator in Student Services.


Every couple of weeks’ new modules will be opened up allowing students to progress through the course. There are weekly assignments and deadlines that will need to be met every Friday. It will be up to you to make sure you follow through on the work and stay up to date on the tasks.


  • There will be five major tests during the semester.

  • Each test covers about two chapters, as designated on the syllabus schedule.

  • You will be allowed to use notes and your book on these tests. You will need a calculator as well.

  • Due to the nature of mathematics, tests will be posted on Canvas as a sheet that will need to be printed out. It can then either be scanned and turned in through Canvas or dropped off during my office hours.

  • The tests will be a combination of multiple choice, true-false, and write-out questions. Show all your work in order to receive partial credit in the event of a wrong answer.

  • The test will be up on Canvas for a few days in order to allow students to take it on their own time.

  • Your lowest test score will be dropped from your final grade. If you fail to take a test, that will be the one that is dropped.

Final Exam

  • The final exam will be cumulative for the entire semester. It will not be one of the test grades that can get dropped. It will be handled and turned in like any other test.


Individual (Homework) Assignments

Homework problems will be assigned for many of the chapters. These will be posted on Blackboard and in the notes. Due dates will be given along with the problems. These will be turned in through Blackboard.

Late homework assignments will be accepted up to one week after the due date for half credit. If this privilege is abused I will let the students know and I will eliminate the acceptance of late homework.

A random number of problems will be graded from each assignment. Students should complete all problems because they will not know which ones are graded.



Each lesson will have a few discussion questions posted on Blackboard. Students should post their response in the discussion forum provided on Blackboard.

Discussion threads for these questions will be closed after the test date for that chapter. These cannot be turned in afterwards.

Student Instructor

Course Materials

Students will need a calculator that can handle the four basic operations, square roots, and exponents. Other devices cannot be substituted in place of a calculator.

Elementary Statistics: A Brief Version textbook

A computer and Internet access is required.

Course Description

This course is designed to present basic facts of descriptive statistics including graphic representation, central tendency, correlation and regression, intuitive treatment of probability and inferential statistics to include hypothesis testing.

Course Syllabus

Students should start by reading the syllabus and make sure they are familiar with the policies, and the process for turning in assignments and the requirements regarding the discussion board.

The module list contains all the links to homework, discussion, and other resources pertaining to the class, including a calendar containing all the due dates for the semester.

Course Assignments

Every assignment can be turned in one of two ways. They can either be placed in the dropbox for that assignment and turned in through Blackboard, or students can drop them off at my office. If I am not available or it is after office hours, no one is in the student can slide the assignment under the door.

There will be material in the various chapters in the book that will not be covered. The chapters that are covered will be done one to two chapters at a time. Late work will be accepted as long as the privilege is not abused, but I highly recommend not waiting until the last minute before the deadlines to do the assignments.

Course Announcements

Stay up to date on what is happening in class by reading all weekly announcements. The announcements will contain vital information regarding any and changes to the syllabus, or other class related material. If students are using a calculator, and having trouble with finding the correct answer they are getting a number off on the right hand side that they do not understand, there will be tutorial video available on the right side of the course shell.

Academic Integrity and Conduct Policy

The integrity of an academic program and degree rests on the principle that the grades awarded to students must reflect only their own individual efforts and achievement.

Students are required to perform the work specified by the instructor and are responsible for the content of work submitted, such as papers, reports, examinations, and other work. Violations of academic integrity include various types of plagiarism and cheating.

Math Help

Students can always contact me via email or Blackboard. Students can come by my office during office hours, or make an appointment, I will try to be flexible with my time.

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