Descriptive survey


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McDaniel/Gates-Marketing Research Essentials, 6th Edition Test Bank

ch02, Chapter 2: Problem Definition, Exploratory Research, and the Research Process


Multiple Choice


Critical Importance of Correctly Defining the Problem


1. The first step in the problem-definition process is:

  1. stating research objectives

  2. recognizing a problem or opportunity

  3. determining if the needed information is already available

  4. determining why the information is being sought


Ans: B

Response: See page 39

Difficulty: Easy


  1. A teen consumer products firm notes that there were 30 million babies born between 1990 and 2002. The firm also recognizes that because of more single parent homes and dual-earner households, that these young consumers are making many more purchase decisions. Beginning the process of marketing to that group of young consumers would be an example of which of the following?

  1. determining if the information exists

  2. using symptoms to clarify a problem

  3. recognizing an opportunity

  4. stating research objectives


Ans: C

Response: See page 40

Difficulty: Difficult


  1. Which of the following is NOT a key question at the problem-definition stage?

  1. why is the information being sought?

  2. does the information already exist?

  3. can the question really be answered?

  4. should a probability or non-probability sample be used?


Ans: D

Response: See page 40

Difficulty: Medium


  1. Large amounts of money, time, and effort are wasted because requests for marketing information were poorly formulated. The preceding could have been avoided if the researcher had:

  1. found out exactly why the information was being sought

  2. stated their objectives more clearly

  3. recognize the opportunity

  4. determine whether the information already exists


Ans: A

Response: See page 41

Difficulty: Medium


  1. A(n) ____________ is preliminary research conducted to increase the understanding of a concept, to clarify the exact nature of the problem to be solved, or to identify important variables to be studied.

  1. exploratory research study

  2. descriptive survey

  3. experiment

  4. situation analysis


Ans: A

Response: See page 41

Difficulty: Easy


  1. Which of the following is untrue about exploratory research?

  1. it is a large-scale study involving a formal questionnaire and rigorous sampling effort

  2. can be flexible in nature and include open-ended questions

  3. could involve reviewing secondary data

  4. help clarify a research problem


Ans: A

Response: See page 41

Difficulty: Medium


7. A(n) _______________ is a survey using a limited number of respondents and often employing less rigorous sampling techniques than are employed in large quantitative studies.

  1. pilot study

  2. experience survey

  3. case analysis

  4. situation analysis


Ans: A

Response: See page 41

Difficulty: Easy


8. _______________ is a discussion with knowledgeable individuals, both inside and outside the organization, who may provide insights into a problem.

  1. pilot study

  2. experience survey

  3. case analysis

  4. situation analysis


Ans: B

Response: See page 43

Difficulty: Easy


9. Which type of exploratory research can often take the form of an informal discussion?

  1. pilot study

  2. experience survey

  3. case analysis

  4. situation analysis


Ans: B

Response: See page 43

Difficulty: Easy


10. This type of exploratory research reviews information from a few other situations that are similar to the present research problem.

  1. pilot study

  2. experience survey

  3. case analysis

  4. situation analysis


Ans: C

Response: See page 43

Difficulty: Easy


11. A student reviews the United States Census site to look for demographic trends in her state. This type of exploratory research is:

  1. a pilot study

  2. an experience survey

  3. case analysis

  4. secondary research


Ans: D

Response: See page 43

Difficulty: Medium


12. Which of the following is NOT a form of exploratory research?

  1. secondary data analysis

  2. test market

  3. pilot study

  4. experience survey


Ans: B

Response: See page 43

Difficulty: Medium


13. A researcher has put together a group of eight male knife enthusiasts to discuss the merits of a new multi-tool with many different types of knife blades. The researcher is using exploratory research in the form of:

  1. a pilot study

  2. experience surveys

  3. a focus group

  4. intranets


Ans: C

Response: See page 44

Difficulty: Medium


14. A company has made its sales and customer databases available on a central networked computer accessible to all members of the firm. The accounting department was able to calculate customer profitability, and the marketing department could identify brand loyal customers. This exploratory research is an example of:

  1. the Intranet

  2. the Internet

  3. the computer focus group

  4. pilot studying


Ans: A

Response: See page 44

Difficulty: Medium


15. Suppose a sales manager makes the statement, “The problem with this company is declining sales.” Why is such a statement shortsighted?

  1. the sales manager has identified only a symptom of a deeper problem

  2. the sales manager is not in a position to make such a statement

  3. the sales manager has not been shortsighted, but has identified the problem

  4. the sales manager has not performed research to prove that sales are declining


Ans: A

Response: See page 45

Difficulty: Difficult


16. In the problem definition stage of using symptoms to clarify a problem, many managers follow the “iceberg principle” and therefore:

  1. grow cold at the thought of continuing the research problem any further, as the task is daunting

  2. crash into unexpected obstacles while blindly following corporate rules and therefore sink

  3. are preoccupied with the obstacle they can see and fail to comprehend and confront the deeper problem, which remains submerged

  4. float along in a sea of doubt about the next stages of the research process


Ans: C

Response: See page 45

Difficulty: Medium


17. A(n) ________________ is a goal statement, defining specific information needed to solve the marketing research problem.

  1. Exploratory study

  2. Marketing research objective

  3. Management objective

  4. Managerial decision problem


Ans: B

Response: See page 45

Difficulty: Easy


18. “What is the best way for our company to enhance our advertising investment?” is an example of what?

  1. objectives statement

  2. marketing research problem

  3. management decision problem

  4. statement of problem symptoms


Ans: C

Response: See page 45

Difficulty: Medium


19. A barbecue restaurant conducted a survey of patrons and found out that customers were unhappy with the temperature of the restaurant, but management didn’t know whether they should make it warmer or colder. The survey failed because:

  1. the findings of the research must be actionable

  2. secondary research was not collected first

  3. it did not reduce management’s level of ignorance

  4. the question was not important enough to ask


Ans: A

Response: See page 46

Difficulty: Difficult


20. Extremely low-incidence studies, such as trying to survey the automobile buying characteristics of astronauts, are usually not feasible. A marketing research firm concerned about the feasibility of such a project would probably:

  1. see if the information already exists

  2. first conduct a pilot survey

  3. consult the Internet for secondary data

  4. determine whether or not the question can be answered


Ans: D

Response: See page 46

Difficulty: Difficult


21. “We believe that raising the price of membership of our country club will make it more desirable, and will increase our membership base” is an example of a (n):

  1. objective

  2. management problem

  3. hypothesis

  4. marketing research problem


Ans: C

Response: See page 48

Difficulty: Medium


Marketing Research Process


22. Deciding whether to conduct a causal study or a descriptive one takes place during which phase of the research process?

  1. problem definition

  2. data analysis

  3. sampling

  4. reporting


Ans: A

Response: See page 49

Difficulty: Medium


23. To test the effectiveness of changes in an advertising campaign, a marketing research firm decides to implement certain changes in Atlanta, other changes in Dallas, and no change to the ad campaign in Denver. With regard to the products in question, the purchasing propensities in the three cities are equal. What type of research design is the marketing research firm invoking?

  1. exploratory study design

  2. observational study design

  3. descriptive study design

  4. causal study design


Ans: D

Response: See page 49

Difficulty: Medium


24. In analyzing the effects of different shelf placements on sales, shelf placement of the product is the:

  1. independent variable

  2. dependent variable

  3. spurious variable

  4. temporal variable


Ans: A

Response: See page 49

Difficulty: Medium


25. A researcher statistically proves there is a mathematical correlation between the size of the mosquito population and the amount of rainfall in the area. He reports that by measuring the mosquito population, one can predict future rainfall. His reasoning has a problem of:

  1. causality

  2. concomitant variation

  3. temporal sequence

  4. spurious associations


Ans: D

Response: See page 49

Difficulty: Medium


26. A laboratory experiment would be better than a field experiment in a grocery store in helping a researcher eliminate:

  1. causality

  2. concomitant variation

  3. variables

  4. spurious associations


Ans: D

Response: See page 50

Difficulty: Medium


27. A research firm decides the best method of achieving its client’s research objectives would be to conduct a telephone interview. This type of data collection approach would be classified as ________________ research.

  1. survey research

  2. observation research

  3. experimental research

  4. cause and effect research


Ans: A

Response: See page 50

Difficulty: Easy


28. When retailers monitor consumer shopping behavior by using scanner technology, this is an example of:

  1. survey research

  2. observation research

  3. experimental research

  4. cause-effect research


Ans: B

Response: See page 50

Difficulty: Medium


29. A manager who wants to show cause-and-effect between two variables would be advised to use which basic method of research?

  1. survey

  2. observation

  3. experiment

  4. focus group


Ans: C

Response: See page 51

Difficulty: Easy


30. The researcher cannot compute the statistical reliability of this type of sample.

  1. probability sample

  2. experimental sample

  3. nonprobability sample

  4. observational sample


Ans: C

Response: See page 51

Difficulty: Medium


31. A _____________ sample is characterized by every element in the population having a nonzero chance of being selected.

  1. nonrandom

  2. nonprobability

  3. probability

  4. convenience


Ans: C

Response: See page 51

Difficulty: Easy


32. Most clients tend to prefer what type of reports?

  1. elaborate written reports

  2. oral reports presented in day-long seminars

  3. PowerPoint presentations

  4. no reports – just the data


Ans: C

Response: See page 52

Difficulty: Medium


Managing the Research Process


33. The brand-line manager for Frito’s snacks has decided he needs additional consumer research about regional offerings in the corn chips line. The manager writes up a memo about the need for the project and the potential costs and submits it to upper-level management. The memo is a(n):

  1. request for proposal

  2. research request

  3. research feasibility proposal

  4. research proposal


Ans: B

Response: See page 53

Difficulty: Medium


34. Who puts together a request for proposal (RFP)?

  1. custom research suppliers

  2. syndicated data suppliers

  3. companies that want to hire a research supplier

  4. respondents


Ans: C

Response: See page 55

Difficulty: Easy


The Marketing Research Proposal


35. According to a recent survey, what is the most desirable quality in a marketing researcher, from the client’s perspective?

  1. flexibility

  2. attention to detail

  3. maintains client confidentiality

  4. customer-oriented


Ans: C

Response: See page 58

Difficulty: Medium


36. Managers in which type of firm tend to use research findings the most?

  1. consumer good companies

  2. industrial firms

  3. retailers

  4. service firms


Ans: B

Response: See page 59

Difficulty: Medium


True – False


Critical Importance of Correctly Defining the Problem


37. The opportunity identification step comes after problem recognition.
Ans: False

Response: See page 40

Difficulty: Easy


38. Exploratory research is often referred to as preliminary research.
Ans: True

Response: See page 41

Difficulty: Easy


39. A pilot study is more rigorous than other types of quantitative studies.
Ans: False

Response: See page 41

Difficulty: Medium


40. Experience surveys usually include a formal questionnaire, often conducted online.
Ans: False

Response: See page 43

Difficulty: Medium


41. The most popular form of exploratory research is the experience survey.
Ans: False

Response: See page 43

Difficulty: Medium


42. Gathering data from previously published articles is an example of primary research.
Ans: False

Response: See page 43

Difficulty: Easy


43. The primary use of exploratory research is to determine a course of action.
Ans: False

Response: See page 44

Difficulty: Medium


44. Marketing research problems are often broader in scope than management problems.
Ans: False

Response: See page 45

Difficulty: Medium


45. Marketing research findings must be actionable to be of value.
Ans: True

Response: See page 46

Difficulty: Easy


46. Research objectives are sometimes stated as hypotheses.
Ans: True

Response: See page 48

Difficulty: Easy


Marketing Research Process

47. One of the advantages of descriptive studies is that they provide evidence of cause and effect relationships, such as advertising causing sales to increase.
Ans: False

Response: See page 49

Difficulty: Medium


48. Observation is a research method that enables the researcher to see if one variable causes another.
Ans: False

Response: See page 49

Difficulty: Easy


49. Changes in the dependent variable are associated with or caused by changes in the independent variable.
Ans: True

Response: See page 49

Difficulty: Easy


50. Two variables must be correlated in order to be causally related.
Ans: True

Response: See page 49

Difficulty: Medium


51. Spurious association implies that the relationship between two variables is related to some explainable cause.
Ans: False

Response: See pages 50

Difficulty: Medium


52. It is often quite easy to hold all factors constant in a field experiment.
Ans: False

Response: See page 50

Difficulty: Easy


53. The Falleys clothing store uses hidden security cameras to provide data on how customers are reacting to special displays. This method of information collection is observation research.
Ans: True

Response: See page 50

Difficulty: Medium


54. Probability samples allow marketing researchers to project their sample results to the population they are studying.
Ans: True

Response: See page 51

Difficulty: Easy


55. A mall-intercept researcher has a goal of interviewing 50 male and 50 female respondents by the end of the day. Additionally, the 100 respondents must fit equally into 4 income categories. The researcher is conducting a probability sample.
Ans: False

Response: See page 51

Difficulty: Difficult


56. Marketing research suppliers typically do their own data collection.
Ans: False

Response: See page 51

Difficulty: Easy


57. Writing and presenting the report is the final stage in the marketing research process.
Ans: False

Response: See page 52

Difficulty: Medium


58. Most marketing researchers are reluctant to put their client’s reports on the Web.
Ans: False

Response: See page 52

Difficulty: Easy


Managing the Research Process


59. The Florida Citrus Board sent a letter to research firms in the state inviting them to send a description and bid for a project to track Internet communications about the health benefits of drinking orange juice. This solicitation is known as an RFP
Ans: True

Response: See page 55

Difficulty: Medium


The Marketing Research Proposal


60. Research objectives should not be included in the marketing research proposal.
Ans: False

Response: See page 57

Difficulty: Easy


Essay


Critical Importance of Correctly Defining the Problem

61. The President of a small state college commissions a marketing research firm to determine why the college’s enrollment has been declining. The President contends that the college is underfunded by the state, compared to other colleges of the same size. The research firm does a study and finds the main reason that enrollment is declining is the lack of relationships between faculty and students. Why might the President not be motivated to use the results of the marketing research study?
SUGGESTED ANSWER: The President might not be motivated to use the research firm’s results because (1) the results do not confirm to prior expectations, and (2) the results would not be politically acceptable within the college. The results might, in fact, cause state legislatures to appropriate less funding for the college.

Response: See pages 39-48

Difficulty: Medium


62. A firm is experiencing a 15% sales decline over the past year. The firm contracts with a marketing research firm to survey its sales force to see what is wrong with their selling techniques. Suggest how the principals in the marketing research firm should respond to their client’s demands.
SUGGESTED ANSWER: The researchers should explain that declining sales are not the problem, and that an exploratory research effort preceding a survey will be necessary to clarify exactly what the problem might be. After the exploratory effort, clear research objectives can be established, and a more formal process can proceed.

Response: See pages 39-41, 45

Difficulty: Medium


63. The United Way agency in your town has contacted you because it has been experiencing declining donations. You tell the agency that your basic plan to determine why donations are declining will be exploratory, then descriptive. Explain what the research firm means.
SUGGESTED ANSWER: Exploratory Research: talk with prominent persons in the agency’s community. Ask these prominent people for their impressions of how the agency is doing in their town. Look at the agency’s donations record. Has the decline been gradual or sudden?

Descriptive Research: armed with the information from the exploratory research effort, conduct a formal survey of the people in the community to establish their opinions of the agency and their intentions concerning giving to the agency.

Response: See pages 41-45, 49

Difficulty: Medium


64. As a student, assume you have been assigned a real-world client for a class project, and you are the team leader. You need to call a meeting with your team members and you want to spell out the steps in the research process that will need to be accomplished for the class. In addition, you need to detail out the stages of the first step (problem identification) to prepare for your first meeting with your client, who is a local veterinarian with a practice that also includes grooming, dental work, boarding, and obedience training. Outline and briefly describe each step of the research process and the activities in the problem definition process.
SUGGESTED ANSWER: The steps in the marketing research process include (1) problem definition, (2) research design, (3) method of research, (4) sampling procedure, (5) data collection, (6) data analysis, (7) report preparation, (8) presentation to the client, and (9) follow-up.
The stages in the problem definition step include (1) recognize the problem or opportunity, (2) find out why information is being sought, (3) understand the decision-making environment, (4) use the symptoms to help clarify problems, (5) translate the management problem into a marketing research problem, (6) determine whether the information already exists, (7) determine whether the question can be answered, and (8) state the research objectives.

Response: See pages 40, 48

Difficulty: Difficult


Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2-

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